Questions and Answers from The Rudiment of The History and Philosophy of Science [Gss, Gst Etc]

QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS FROM THE RUDIMENTS OF THE HISTORY AND PHILOSOPHY OF SCIENCE

COMPLIED BY

PRINCEWILL UDOH

CHAPTER ONE

  1. ______ Refers to the systematic body of knowledge.  Ans: Science     
  2. ______ see science as the specific modality of human activity investments which consist of producing objective knowledge based on discoveries of laws?            Ans:  S.P. Gueye
  3. ______ is the first step of scientific inquiry while ______ is the last stage Ans: The problem, conclusion.
  4. According to _____ facts can be defined in two ways, first as a proposition and second as the actual states of affairs.     Ans: John Hospers
  5. _____ see facts as a particular which are such things a little pitches of colour or sounds, or momentary things                 Ans: Betrand Russell
  6. Science etymologically is gotten from a

          Greek _______ Episteme

          Latin ________ Scientia                                                ANS

          Russia _______Nauka

          German ______ Wissenschat

  • Who define history as a story or account which is the umbrella of the past event.? Ans: Nikolas Gysis
  • According to ________ philosophy is difficult to define, and hence Identities ____ sources out of which this perceived difficulty springs. Ans: C. S momoh, 5 sources
  • In ______ Antoine Lavoisier discovered the true nature of combustion. Ans: 1777
  • ______ is credited with development of the first successful method for naming in animals and plant.   Ans: Carolus Linnaeus
  •  ______ Organized all the findings of biologist about nervous system, the circulation of blood, respiration and embryology? Ans: Albrecht Von Heller.
  • ______ discovered sound in science.     Ans: Joseph Sanveneur
  • _____ discovered current of electricity or galvanish  Ans: Alosio Galvani
  • _____ Discovered proof of the law of inverse square.  Ans: Charles. A. coulomb (1736-1806)
  • ____ discovered the measurement of heat while ____ discovered the steam in engine. Ans: Joseph Black (1728-1799) And Thomas New comer
  • ____ shows that light and other energy waves are fundamentally the same. Ans: H. C. Maxwell.
  • In the ____ Century ____ British geologist put forth a proof to show that the development of the earth process has been slow? Ans: 19C. Charles Lyell.
  • In 1858 _____ put forth an evolutionary theory of the origin of plant and animals? Ans: Charles Darwin.
  • ______ founded the first laboratory of experimental psychology in 1879. Ans: Wilhelm Wundt of Germany.
  • It was in _______ year that Albert Einstein extended his energy theory. Ans: 1905
  • _____ was known for his relativity theory? Ans: Albert Einstein
  • History of medicine can historically be regarded to ____ and in _____ Ans: Bablylon.2000 B. C.
  • ______ was the father of medicine? Ans. Hippocrate
  • The main contribution to medicine came from two notable physicians, namely ______ and ______. Ans: Avicenna and Averroes.
  • ______ produced an active medical based on uroscopy in the 13th century? Ans: Johnes Actuarius
  • Uroscopy was exalted till it bred ___    Ans: Quacks.
  • In _____ year ______ introduced the anatomical studies by the practice of dissection? Ans: Leonardo de Vinci, (1452-1570)
  • _______ Hold the notion that diseases were seed ______ like entities? Ans: Girolamo Fracastoro
  • _____ Invented the first instrument for measuring temperature and in ___ year.

Ans: Galolio Galilei 1595.

  • _____ brought the description of circulation of blood and m ____ year? Ans: William Harvey. 1628
  • _____ Discovered that living tissues were made up of basic microscopic unit called cells?      Ans: Robert Hooke
  • ­­­­­­­______ discovered the small – box vaccine in 1798                                  Ans: Edward Jenner.
  • _____ (1822 – 1884) brought about the Idea of principle of inheritance 1861.     Ans: Gregor Mendels
  • _____­___ introduced the practice of antiseptics in surgery in 1864.    Ans: 1864.
  • Albert Sabin is credited with the discovery of the polio Vaccines. True / false.      Ans: true
  • ______ and _____ developed the first chemotherapeutic agent in 1908? Ans: Paul Ehrlich and Noguchi
  • _____ defined mathematics as the sign of symbols and study of numbers, geometry and algebra?    Ans: Roughly.
  • In the field of physics ______ is seen as the father of modern science? Ans: Galileo Galilei
  • ______ Founded the Analytic geometry in 1637?                           Ans: Rene Descartes
  • Who published a book titled “The Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy?       Ans: Newton.

CHAPTER TWO

  • According to _____ Science refers to the systematic enterprise that builds and organizes knowledge in form of retable explanations and prediction of phenomenon?      Ans: Umotong.
  • _____ holds the notion that science refers to the body of reliable knowledge, especially logical and rational sources.?          Ans: Aristotle.
  • _______ is defined as the deviation of general principles from specific instance?  Ans: Induction
  • ______ is of the believe that the objects of our senses are real, indubitable, and reliable without it coming from our mind?                Ans: Realism
  • _______ shades of realism holds that reality in nature is the issue of class struggle and was championed by Karl Marx.  Ans: Social Realism
  • _____ Realism is otherwise known as common sense?                           Ans: Naïve realism
  • _____ realism is of the view that reality consist of inferences not fact? Ans: Hypothetical realism
  • ______________ shades of realism holds that the real thing is God?   Ans: Scholastic or theistic realism
  • _____ type of positivism maintains that the society should be understood and explained from the perspective of its empirical observation? Ans: Social Positivism
  • _______ were the members of the logical positivist otherwise known as the Vienna?         Ans: Moritz Schlick, Otto Neurath, Viktor Kraft, Herbert Fiegl, Kurt Godel.

CHAPTER THREE

  • The philosophy of Karl Popper was called ________ while his method was called ______.  Ans: Critical Rationalism, Falsification method.
  • ______ was known as the philosopher of trial and error, and also hold the notion that if any anomaly is discovered in science, it should be corroborated, but if there is non, it should be Jettisen? Ans: Karl Popper
  • The idea of verisimilitude was introduced by Karl Popper to mean?    Ans: Veritas – Truth, Litude – Likeness.
  • The famous book of Karl Popper was titled _______?  Ans: The logic of scientific discovery.
  • _______ is his book _____ called Imre Lakatos a revisionary Popperian? Ans: Newton Smith, the rationality of science.
  • ______ introduced a method called the “methodology of scientific research program? Ans: Imre Lakatos
  • ______ is known for this quote? “It is not that we propose a theory and nature shout No, rather we propose a maze of theory and nature shouts Inconsistent” Ans: Imre Lakatos
  • _________ Imre Lakatos protected the Hardcore with the _________  Ans: Protective Belt
  • The positive Heuristic of Lakatos was to ________ while the negative was to ________       

Ans: Positive – was to guide the scientist on the part to follow

              Negative – was to forbid the Hardcore from attack

  • ____ wrote the book titled “The Structure of Scientific Revolution”? Ans: Thomas Kuhn
  • Thomas Kuhn’s methodology was known as ____ Ans: Revolutionary science or paradigm shift
  • ‘Gestal switch’ was seen in the philosophy of ____     Ans: Thomas Kuhn
  • Kuhn’s picture of a way science progresses can be seen in ________  Ans: (a) Pre-science  (b) Normal science  (c) crises and revolution   (d) new normal science  (e) New crises.
  • _____ was the father of Positivism?      Ans: August Comte
  • 64.         ________   ________ and ________ are the stages of positivism.  Ans: (a) Metaphysical stage  (b) Theological stage  (c) Positive or scientific stage.
  • The verifiability criterion was a method used by the _____________ Ans: Logical Positivist
  • Creationism can also be called _____ and were conceived in _____ century.                Ans: Judaic or Judea Christian, 19C
  • The theory of evolution was conceived by a man called. Ans: Charles Darwin
  • “The origin of the species” (1859) and “The descent of man” was a book written by _______.                   Ans: Charles Darwin
  • 69.         The Universe came from a cosmic explosion was the ______ theory and was championed by _______.   Ans: Big Bang, George Lamaitre.
  • The idea that the universe is both homogenous and isotropic, constant and immovable, and remain the same is in that ______ theory of the universe?  Ans: Steady states theory.
  • Hermon Bodi, Thomas Gold and Fred Hoyle were the core Proponent of ______ theory.             Ans: The steady state theory.
  • The inflation theory was introduced by _____.                  Ans: Alan Guth
  • 73.         The notion that the universe started expanding at 10-15 seconds is ___________         Ans: Inflation theory
  • ______ states that the universe was created from a vacuum of fluctuation?   Ans: Free Lunch theory.
  • Zedovich, Sparobins Ky and Tryon were the exponent of _____theory. Ans: Free Lunch theory
  • Quantum cosmology was brought by a man called? Ans: Stephen Hawkings.

CHAPTER FIVE

  • The World Health Organization (WHO) defines health as “a state of complete, physical mental and social well being and not merely the absence of disease. True / False.                     Ans: True.
  • ____ and ____ conceived health as a dynamic process, determined subjectively and objectively; a god; a being able to take care of, oneself.? Ans: Lindberg and Hunter.
  • _____ and ____ Define nutrient as the study of how organisms process food in order to enhance healthy living. Ans: Umotong and Udoh.
  • There are _____ body nutrient?   Ans: 6
  • ____ is an energy given nutrients which is categorized into simple and compound.      Ans: Carbohydrates.
  • ____ Body nutrient consist 17 percent of the total body weight and also help the regulation of the red blood cell?       Ans: Protein.
  • ____ is referred to as the combination of saturated and unsaturated fats? Ans: Fat
  • ____ is the balancing of water Fluid in the body?    Ans:  Osmolality
  • ____ is an anti – vitamin present in raw fish? Ans: Thiaminase
  • ____ is an anti ___ vitamin present in raw egg? Ans: Avidin
  • There are _____ vitamins             Ans: 13
  • Water constitutes _____ percent of total body weight? Ans: 70 percent
  • The function of food is classified into;        Ans   (a) Physiological,       (b) Sociological,   (c) Psychological
  • ____ is a protein related deficiency with symptoms characterized by swollen abdomen and emaciating body? Ans: Kwashiorkor
  • ____ is caused by contaminated water and unsanitary environment? Ans: Cholera.
  • ____ is associated with a rapid excessive and abnormal cell growth? Ans: Cancer
  • __________ is known as disease of the lungs, abbreviated by (TB).   Ans: Tuberculosis
  • According to ______ Science is defined in broad sense and strict sense? Ans: Omeregbe.
  • Technology is gotten from a Greek term         _____.        Ans: Techne

CHAPTER SIX

  • ____ is refer to as the ability to do something?                  Ans: Energy
  • Is not a class of energy.  (a) Thermal energy (b) mechanical energy       (c) Chemical energy     (d) Nuclear energy     (e) petrol energy.
  • _________ and _________ were the old forms of energy.                       Ans: Potential and kinetic
  • ___________ and __________ are the new classes of energy.        Ans: Renewable and Non-renewable.
  • __________ class of energy is also known as environmental friendly. Ans: Renewable.
  • Examples of Renewable energy are _______

          Ans: (a) Hydro power

                   (b) Wind

                   (c) Solar

                   (d) Tidal energy.

  1. ____ Form or class of energy causes global warming and consist of petroleum, coal when burnt and flames?     Ans: Non – Renewable energy.
  2. ____ Sources of Renewable energy comes from air in motion and the source is sun?               Ans: Wind power.
  3. __________ energy is from the sun, and it is form of radiant energy? Ans: Solar energy
  4. ________is a naturally occurring complex mixture of hydrogen (Hydrocarbons) which may be solid or liquid or gaseous?  
    Ans: Petroleum
  5. ________ is a form of the sedimentary rock, which is formed through the accumulation of dead leaves, branches and other plant buried? 

Ans: Coal

  1. According to (A R Lacey) Science is knowledge a ranged in an orderly manner especially obtained by observation and testing of fact? True / False.    Ans: True.
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Author: inim kufre

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